Useful Thoughts

Opinions About Every Little Thing


June 18, 2017



history of telecommunication in the sub continent is as old as the history of

our slavery. In the subcontinent before independence this sector was under the

Indian post and telegraph department and developed as a successful industry.

The role of telecommunication in Pakistan can be broadly divided in to four





the time of independence and telecommunication services were performed by a

single department known as Pakistan post and telegraph (P&T).his department

started its telephone service with only 12346 telephone lines and seven

telegraph offices all over Pakistan. All the telephone service at that time was

manual. This department continues its business up to 1962.the government of

Pakistan adopted the government of India telegraph act 188 to control and

direct the activities of telecommunication.




first step towards reform in telecommunication sector was made in 1962.when the

ayyub khan government decided to split up the (PT&T) department into two

separate departments Pakistan post and Pakistan telephone & telegraph

(PT&T) under the presidential ordinance. The PT&T in fact a civil

service department under the minstrel controls. This department was headed by

director general. The decision making power was concentrated with the post of

dg, whilst the responsibilities were delegated to general managers and chief

engineers and general managers reporting directly to the director general. The

centralized structure of PT&T caused inefficiency in operations and long

delay in implementing decisions. At the time of inception of PTCL ACN the total number

of employees working in PT&T was 45686 and total network comported of





decade of 1990s brought about many changes in the economic structure of

Pakistan. The government of Pakistan pursued the deregulation and

liberalization policy in production and service industry. The major change in

this regard was privatization and deregulation of many of the departments of

government of Pakistan. The objective was to reduce the burden of the

government minimize the bureaucratic influence and improve the efficiency of

these departments.


major break through in the history of telecommunication in the country occurred

with the gradual deregulation and privatization of t) t, at the first stage

Pakistan telephone and telegraph department (PT&T) was converted into a

statutory corporation Pakistan telecommunication corporation. On December 5th

,1990 the PT&T department was transformed into Pakistan telecommunication

corporation with a legal identity separate from the government. This change in

the statute introduced by the government of Pakistan enabled PTC to move from

administrative to contractual relationship with its customer. It provided the

opportunity for the development of telecommunication facilities to an

unprecedented level and also for an increased customer satisfaction. Working

under the PTCL act noxv111 of 1991, the corporation was responsible for establishment

maintenance and operation of telecommunication services telephone telegraph

telex, tele fax and data transmission with in the country and establishment of

international link with all member countries of ITU (international

telecommunication union


telecommunication corporation in it five years life spread the network of its

services all over the country and the total number of telephone lines expanded TP

2127344 in addition to telegraph the telex services. The total number of

employees at the end of 1995 was 53705.


addition to inland telephone network PTCL did a lot to improve the

international communication. The international communication network of PTCL

comprised of variety of satellite earth stations, terrestrial systems,

submarine cable system and coastal radio systems, as well as international

gateway exchanges.




telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) is a company established to undertake

the telecommunication business formally carried on by Pakistan.


corporation (PTCL) Pakistan telecommunication corporation (PTCL) was

transformed into Pakistan telecommunication company limited (PTCL) on January 1st

,1996 under Pakistan telecommunication reorganization act 1996 according

to which PTCL took over all the

properties assets rights and obligations of PTCL. Under the PTCL reorganization

act, 1996 the telecommunication sectors were split up into four bodies.

Pakistan Telecommunication Company limited (ptcl)

Pakistan telecommunication authority (PTCL)

National Telecommunication Corporation (NTC)

Frequency allocation board (FAB)


telecommunication authority is a regulatory body responsible for monitoring the

telecommunication business in Pakistan. It frames rules and regulation for

private telecom companies such as mobile phone companies, internet service

providers, paging companies and pay card phone companies. It also issues

licenses to the new companies in entering to this business.


Telecom Corporation (NTC) is responsible to provide the telecommunication

services to the various departments of government and armed services.

Pakistan Telecommunication Company limited is

the primary provider of telecommunications services in Pakistan. The range of

its services includes basic telephone, telegraph, fax, telex, email, digital

cross connect, public data network, internet, isdn, and other digital

facilities. The total number of installed telephone lines (ali) at June 30,

1998 was 35, 19,877 while the total number of actual lines in service (alis)

was 26, 60,898. The difference between ali and alis issue to pending and potential

future demands


June 18, 2017
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Not to be confused with Teleconnection.

Earth station at the satellite communication facility in Raisting, Bavaria, Germany

Visualization from the Opte Project of the various routes through a portion of the Internet

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.[1][2] Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology. It is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation.[3][4][5][6][7][8] Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is often used in its plural form, telecommunications, because it involves many different technologies.

Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs.[9] Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. 20th and 21st century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, and communications satellites.

A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909. Other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications include Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (inventors of the telegraph), Alexander Graham Bell (inventor of the telephone), Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest (inventors of radio), as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth (some of the inventors of television).


1 Etymology

2 History

2.1 Beacons and pigeons

2.2 Telegraph and telephone

2.3 Radio and television

2.4 Computers and the Internet

3 Key concepts

3.1 Basic elements

3.2 Analog versus digital communications

3.3 Telecommunication networks

3.4 Communication channels

3.5 Modulation

4 Society

4.1 Economic impact

4.1.1 Microeconomics

4.1.2 Macroeconomics

4.2 Social impact

4.3 Other impacts

5 Government

6 Modern media

6.1 Worldwide equipment sales

6.2 Telephone

6.3 Radio and television

6.4 Internet

6.5 Local area networks and wide area networks

7 Transmission capacity

8 See also

9 References

9.1 Citations

9.2 Bibliography

10 External links


The word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele (????), meaning distant, far off, or afar,[10] and the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French,[7] because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist douard Estauni.[11][12]Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century. It comes from Old French comunicacion (14c., Modern French communication), from Latin communicationem (nominative communicatio), noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out; communicate, impart, inform; join, unite, participate in," literally "to make common," from communis".[13]


For more details on this topic, see History of telecommunication.

Beacons and pigeons

A replica of one of Chappe's semaphore towers

Homing pigeons have occasionally been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, and was later used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said that Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul.[14] The Greeks also conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons.[15] In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Java and Sumatra. And in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed.[16]

In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London.[17]

In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system (or semaphore line) between Lille and Paris.[18] However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres (six to nineteen miles). As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880.[19]

Telegraph and telephone

Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke invented the electric telegraph in 1837.[20] Also, the first commercial electrical telegraph is purported to have been constructed by Wheatstone and Cooke and opened on 9 April 1839. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the [existing] electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device.[21]

Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837. His code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was successfully completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time.[22]

The conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876.[23]Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849. However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said.[24] The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London.[25][26]

Radio and television

In 1832, James Lindsay gave a classroom demonstration of wireless telegraphy to his students. By 1854, he was able to demonstrate a transmission across the Firth of Tay from Dundee, Scotland to Woodhaven, a distance of two miles (3km), using water as the transmission medium.[27] In December 1901, Guglielmo Marconi established wireless communication between St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada) and Poldhu, Cornwall (England), earning him the 1909 Nobel Prize in physics (which he shared with Karl Braun).[28] However small-scale radio communication had already been demonstrated in 1893 by Nikola Tesla in a presentation to the National Electric Light Association.[29]

On 25 March 1925, John Logie Baird was able to demonstrate the transmission of moving pictures at the London department store Selfridges. Baird's device relied upon the Nipkow disk and thus became known as the mechanical television. It formed the basis of experimental broadcasts done by the British Broadcasting Corporation beginning 30 September 1929.[30] However, for most of the twentieth century televisions depended upon the cathode ray tube invented by Karl Braun. The first version of such a television to show promise was produced by Philo Farnsworth and demonstrated to his family on 7 September 1927.[31]

Computers and the Internet

On 11 September 1940, George Stibitz transmitted problems for his Complex Number Calculator in New York using a teletype, and received the computed results back at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.[32] This configuration of a centralized computer (mainframe) with remote dumb terminals remained popular well into the 1970s. However, already in the 1960s, researchers started to investigate packet switching, a technology that sends a message in portions to its destination asynchronously without passing it through a centralized mainframe. A four-node network emerged on 5 December 1969, constituting the beginnings of the ARPANET, which by 1981 had grown to 213 nodes.[33] ARPANET eventually merged with other networks to form the Internet. While Internet development was a focus of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) who published a series of Request for Comment documents, other networking advancement occurred in industrial laboratories, such as the local area network (LAN) developments of Ethernet (1983) and the token ring protocol (1984).

Key concepts

Modern telecommunication is founded on a series of key concepts that experienced progressive development and refinement in a period of well over a century.

Basic elements

Telecommunication technologies may primarily be divided into wired and wireless methods. Overall though, a basic telecommunication system consists of three main parts that are always present in some form or another:

A transmitter that takes information and converts it to a signal.

A transmission medium, also called the physical channel that carries the signal. An example of this is the "free space channel".

A receiver that takes the signal from the channel and converts it back into usable information for the recipient.

For example, in a radio broadcasting station the station's large power amplifier is the transmitter; and the broadcasting antenna is the interface between the power amplifier and the "free space channel". The free space channel is the transmission medium; and the receiver's antenna is the interface between the free space channel and the receiver. Next, the radio receiver is the destination of the radio signal, and this is where it is converted from electricity to sound for people to listen to.

Sometimes, telecommunication systems are "duplex" (two-way systems) with a single box of electronics working as both the transmitter and a receiver, or a transceiver. For example, a cellular telephone is a transceiver.[34] The transmission electronics and the receiver electronics within a transceiver are actually quite independent of each other. This can be readily explained by the fact that radio transmitters contain power amplifiers that operate with electrical powers measured in watts or kilowatts, but radio receivers deal with radio powers that are measured in the microwatts or nanowatts. Hence, transceivers have to be carefully designed and built to isolate their high-power circuitry and their low-power circuitry from each other, as to not cause interference.

Telecommunication over fixed lines is called point-to-point communication because it is between one transmitter and one receiver. Telecommunication through radio broadcasts is called broadcast communication because it is between one powerful transmitter and numerous low-power but sensitive radio receivers.[34]

Telecommunications in which multiple transmitters and multiple receivers have been designed to cooperate and to share the same physical channel are called multiplex systems. The sharing of physical channels using multiplexing often gives very large reductions in costs. Multiplexed systems are laid out in telecommunication networks, and the multiplexed signals are switched at nodes through to the correct destination terminal receiver.

Analog versus digital communications

Communications signals can be sent either by analog signals or digital signals. There are analog communication systems and digital communication systems. For an analog signal, the signal is varied continuously with respect to the information. In a digital signal, the information is encoded as a set of discrete values (for example, a set of ones and zeros). During the propagation and reception, the information contained in analog signals will inevitably be degraded by undesirable physical noise. (The output of a transmitter is noise-free for all practical purposes.) Commonly, the noise in a communication system can be expressed as adding or subtracting from the desirable signal in a completely random way. This form of noise is called additive noise, with the understanding that the noise can be negative or positive at different instants of time. Noise that is not additive noise is a much more difficult situation to describe or analyze, and these other kinds of noise will be omitted here.

On the other hand, unless the additive noise disturbance exceeds a certain threshold, the information contained in digital signals will remain intact. Their resistance to noise represents a key advantage of digital signals over analog signals.[35]

Telecommunication networks

A telecommunications network is a collection of transmitters, receivers, and communications channels that send messages to one another. Some digital communications networks contain one or more routers that work together to transmit information to the correct user. An analog communications network consists of one or more switches that establish a connection between two or more users. For both types of network, repeaters may be necessary to amplify or recreate the signal when it is being transmitted over long distances. This is to combat attenuation that can render the signal indistinguishable from the noise.[36] Another advantage of digital systems over analog is that their output is easier to store in memory, i.e. two voltage states (high and low) are easier to store than a continuous range of states.

Communication channels

The term "channel" has two different meanings. In one meaning, a channel is the physical medium that carries a signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Examples of this include the atmosphere for sound communications, glass optical fibers for some kinds of optical communications, coaxial cables for communications by way of the voltages and electric currents in them, and free space for communications using visible light, infrared waves, ultraviolet light, and radio waves. This last channel is called the "free space channel". The sending of radio waves from one place to another has nothing to do with the presence or absence ACN of an atmosphere between the two. Radio waves travel through a perfect vacuum just as easily as they travel through air, fog, clouds, or any other kind of gas.

The other meaning of the term "channel" in telecommunications is seen in the phrase communications channel, which is a subdivision of a transmission medium so that it can be used to send multiple streams of information simultaneously. For example, one radio station can broadcast radio waves into free space at frequencies in the neighborhood of 94.5MHz (megahertz) while another radio station can simultaneously broadcast radio waves at frequencies in the neighborhood of 96.1MHz. Each radio station would transmit radio waves over a frequency bandwidth of about 180kHz (kilohertz), centered at frequencies such as the above, which are called the "carrier frequencies". Each station in this example is separated from its adjacent stations by 200kHz, and the difference between 200kHz and 180kHz (20kHz) is an engineering allowance for the imperfections in the communication system.

In the example above, the "free space channel" has been divided into communications channels according to frequencies, and each channel is assigned a separate frequency bandwidth in which to broadcast radio waves. This system of dividing the medium into channels according to frequency is called "frequency-division multiplexing". Another term for the same concept is "wavelength-division multiplexing", which is more commonly used in optical communications when multiple transmitters share the same physical medium.

Another way of dividing a communications medium into channels is to allocate each sender a recurring segment of time (a "time slot", for example, 20 milliseconds out of each second), and to allow each sender to send messages only within its own time slot. This method of dividing the medium into communication channels is called "time-division multiplexing" (TDM), and is used in optical fiber communication. Some radio communication systems use TDM within an allocated FDM channel. Hence, these systems use a hybrid of TDM and FDM.


The shaping of a signal to convey information is known as modulation. Modulation can be used to represent a digital message as an analog waveform. This is commonly called "keying" - a term derived from the older use of Morse Code in telecommunications - and several keying techniques exist (these include phase-shift keying, frequency-shift keying, and amplitude-shift keying). The "Bluetooth" system, for example, uses phase-shift keying to exchange information between various devices.[37][38] In addition, there are combinations of phase-shift keying and amplitude-shift keying which is called (in the jargon of the field) "quadrature amplitude modulation" (QAM) that are used in high-capacity digital radio communication systems.

Modulation can also be used to transmit the information of low-frequency analog signals at higher frequencies. This is helpful because low-frequency analog signals cannot be effectively transmitted over free space. Hence the information from a low-frequency analog signal must be impressed into a higher-frequency signal (known as the "carrier wave") before transmission. There are several different modulation schemes available to achieve this [two of the most basic being amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM)]. An example of this process is a disc jockey's voice being impressed into a 96MHz carrier wave using frequency modulation (the voice would then be received on a radio as the channel "96FM").[39] In addition, modulation has the advantage that it may use frequency division multiplexing (FDM).


Telecommunication has a significant social, cultural and economic impact on modern society. In 2008, estimates placed the telecommunication industry's revenue at $4.7 trillion or just under 3 percent of the gross world product (official exchange rate).[40] Several following sections discuss the impact of telecommunication on society.

Economic impact


On the microeconomic scale, companies have used telecommunications to help build global business empires. This is self-evident in the case of online retailer but, according to academic Edward Lenert, even the conventional retailer Walmart has benefited from better telecommunication infrastructure compared to its competitors.[41] In cities throughout the world, home owners use their telephones to order and arrange a variety of home services ranging from pizza deliveries to electricians. Even relatively poor communities have been noted to use telecommunication to their advantage. In Bangladesh's Narshingdi district, isolated villagers use cellular phones to speak directly to wholesalers and arrange a better price for their goods. In Cte d'Ivoire, coffee growers share mobile phones to follow hourly variations in coffee prices and sell at the best price.[42]


On the macroeconomic scale, Lars-Hendrik Rller and Leonard Waverman suggested a causal link between good telecommunication infrastructure and economic growth.[43][44] Few dispute the existence of a correlation although some argue it is wrong to view the relationship as causal.[45]

Because of the economic benefits of good telecommunication infrastructure, there is increasing worry about the inequitable access to telecommunication services amongst various countries of the world--this is known as the digital divide. A 2003 survey by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) revealed that roughly a third of countries have fewer than one mobile subscription for every 20 people and one-third of countries have fewer than one land-line telephone subscription for every 20 people. In terms of Internet access, roughly half of all countries have fewer than one out of 20 people with Internet access. From this information, as well as educational data, the ITU was able to compile an index that measures the overall ability of citizens to access and use information and communication technologies.[46] Using this measure, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland received the highest ranking while the African countries Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Mali received the lowest.[47]

Social impact

Telecommunication has played a significant role in social relationships. Nevertheless, devices like the telephone system were originally advertised with an emphasis on the practical dimensions of the device (such as the ability to conduct business or order home services) as opposed to the social dimensions. It was not until the late 1920s and 1930s that the social dimensions of the device became a prominent theme in telephone advertisements. New promotions started appealing to consumers' emotions, stressing the importance of social conversations and staying connected to family and friends.[48]

Since then the role that telecommunications has played in social relations has become increasingly important. In recent years, the popularity of social networking sites has increased dramatically. These sites allow users to communicate with each other as well as post photographs, events and profiles for others to see. The profiles can list a person's age, interests, sexual preference and relationship status. In this way, these sites can play important role in everything from organising social engagements to courtship.[49]

Prior to social networking sites, technologies like short message service (SMS) and the telephone also had a significant impact on social interactions. In 2000, market research group Ipsos MORI reported that 81% of 15- to 24-year-old SMS users in the United Kingdom had used the service to coordinate social arrangements and 42% to flirt.[50]

Other impacts

News source preference

of Americans in 2006.[51]

Local TV


National TV




Local paper




National paper


Survey permitted multiple answers

In cultural terms, telecommunication has increased the public's ability to access music and film. With television, people can watch films they have not seen before in their own home without having to travel to the video store or cinema. With radio and the Internet, people can listen to music they have not heard before without having to travel to the music store.

Telecommunication has also transformed the way people receive their news. A 2006 survey (right table) of slightly more than 3,000 Americans by the non-profit Pew Internet and American Life Project in the United States the majority specified television or radio over newspapers.

Telecommunication has had an equally significant impact on advertising. TNS Media Intelligence reported that in 2007, 58% of advertising expenditure in the United States was spent on media that depend upon telecommunication.[52]

Advertising expenditures in US in 2007





$11.31 billion



$10.69 billion

Cable TV


$18.02 billion

Syndicated TV


$4.17 billion

Spot TV


$16.82 billion

Network TV


$25.42 billion



$28.22 billion



$30.33 billion



$4.02 billion



$149 billion


Many countries have enacted legislation which conforms to the International Telecommunication Regulations established by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which is the "leading UN agency for information and communication technology issues."[53] In 1947, at the Atlantic City Conference, the ITU decided to "afford international protection to all frequencies registered in a new international frequency list and used in conformity with the Radio Regulation." According to the ITU's Radio Regulations adopted in Atlantic City, all frequencies referenced in the International Frequency Registration Board, examined by the board and registered on the International Frequency List "shall have the right to international protection from harmful interference."[54]

From a global perspective, there have been political debates and legislation regarding the management of telecommunication and broadcasting. The history of broadcasting discusses some debates in relation to balancing conventional communication such as printing and telecommunication such as radio broadcasting.[55] The onset of World War II brought on the first explosion of international broadcasting propaganda.[55] Countries, their governments, insurgents, terrorists, and militiamen have all used telecommunication and broadcasting techniques to promote propaganda.[55][56] Patriotic propaganda for political movements and colonization started the mid-1930s. In 1936, the BBC broadcast propaganda to the Arab World to partly counter similar broadcasts from Italy, which also had colonial interests in North Africa.[55]

Modern insurgents, such as those in the latest Iraq war, often use intimidating telephone calls, SMSs and the distribution of sophisticated videos of an attack on coalition troops within hours of the operation. "The Sunni insurgents even have their own television station, Al-Zawraa, which while banned by the Iraqi government, still broadcasts from Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, even as coalition pressure has forced it to switch satellite hosts several times."[56]

On 10 November 2014, President Obama recommended the Federal Communications Commission reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality.[57][58]

Modern media

Worldwide equipment sales

According to data collected by Gartner[59][60] and Ars Technica[61] sales of main consumer's telecommunication equipment worldwide in millions of units was:

Equipment / year


























Cell phones














Optical fiber provides cheaper bandwidth for long distance communication.

In a telephone network, the caller is connected to the person they want to talk to by switches at various telephone exchanges. The switches form an electrical connection between the two users and the setting of these switches is determined electronically when the caller dials the number. Once the connection is made, the caller's voice is transformed to an electrical signal using a small microphone in the caller's handset. This electrical signal is then sent through the network to the user at the other end where it is transformed back into sound by a small speaker in that person's handset.

The landline telephones in most residential homes are analog--that is, the speaker's voice directly determines the signal's voltage. Although short-distance calls may be handled from end-to-end as analog signals, increasingly telephone service providers are transparently converting the signals to digital signals for transmission. The advantage of this is that digitized voice data can travel side-by-side with data from the Internet and can be perfectly reproduced in long distance communication (as opposed to analog signals that are inevitably impacted by noise).

Mobile phones have had a significant impact on telephone networks. Mobile phone subscriptions now outnumber fixed-line subscriptions in many markets. Sales of mobile phones in 2005 totalled 816.6 million with that figure being almost equally shared amongst the markets of Asia/Pacific (204 m), Western Europe (164 m), CEMEA (Central Europe, the Middle East and Africa) (153.5 m), North America (148 m) and Latin America (102 m).[62] In terms of new subscriptions over the five years from 1999, Africa has outpaced other markets with 58.2% growth.[63] Increasingly these phones are being serviced by systems where the voice content is transmitted digitally such as GSM or W-CDMA with many markets choosing to deprecate analog systems such as AMPS.[64]

There have also been dramatic changes in telephone communication behind the scenes. Starting with the operation of TAT-8 in 1988, the 1990s saw the widespread adoption of systems based on optical fibers. The benefit of communicating with optic fibers is that they offer a drastic increase in data capacity. TAT-8 itself was able to carry 10 times as many telephone calls as the last copper cable laid at that time and today's optic fibre cables are able to carry 25 times as many telephone calls as TAT-8.[65] This increase in data capacity is due to several factors: First, optic fibres are physically much smaller than competing technologies. Second, they do not suffer from crosstalk which means several hundred of them can be easily bundled together in a single cable.[66] Lastly, improvements in multiplexing have led to an exponential growth in the data capacity of a single fibre.[67][68]

Assisting communication across many modern optic fibre networks is a protocol known as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). The ATM protocol allows for the side-by-side data transmission mentioned in the second paragraph. It is suitable for public telephone networks because it establishes a pathway for data through the network and associates a traffic contract with that pathway. The traffic contract is essentially an agreement between the client and the network about how the network is to handle the data; if the network cannot meet the conditions of the traffic contract it does not accept the connection. This is important because telephone calls can negotiate a contract so as to guarantee themselves a constant bit rate, something that will ensure a caller's voice is not delayed in parts or cut off completely.[69] There are competitors to ATM, such as Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), that perform a similar task and are expected to supplant ATM in the future.[70][71]

Radio and television

Main articles: Radio, Television, and Broadcasting

Digital television standards and their adoption worldwide

In a broadcast system, the central high-powered broadcast tower transmits a high-frequency electromagnetic wave to numerous low-powered receivers. The high-frequency wave sent by the tower is modulated with a signal containing visual or audio information. The receiver is then tuned so as to pick up the high-frequency wave and a demodulator is used to retrieve the signal containing the visual or audio information. The broadcast signal can be either analog (signal is varied continuously with respect to the information) or digital (information is encoded as a set of discrete values).[34][72]

The broadcast media industry is at a critical turning point in its development, with many countries moving from analog to digital broadcasts. This move is made possible by the production of cheaper, faster and more capable integrated circuits. The chief advantage of digital broadcasts is that they prevent a number of complaints common to traditional analog broadcasts. For television, this includes the elimination of problems such as snowy pictures, ghosting and other distortion. These occur because of the nature of analog transmission, which means that perturbations due to noise will be evident in the final output. Digital transmission overcomes this problem because digital signals are reduced to discrete values upon reception and hence small perturbations do not affect the final output. In a simplified example, if a binary message 1011 was transmitted with signal amplitudes [1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0] and received with signal amplitudes [0.9 0.2 1.1 0.9] it would still decode to the binary message 1011 -- a perfect reproduction of what was sent. From this example, a problem with digital transmissions can also be seen in that if the noise is great enough it can significantly alter the decoded message. Using forward error correction a receiver can correct a handful of bit errors in the resulting message but too much noise will lead to incomprehensible output and hence a breakdown of the transmission.[73][74]

In digital television broadcasting, there are three competing standards that are likely to be adopted worldwide. These are the ATSC, DVB and ISDB standards; the adoption of these standards thus far is presented in the captioned map. All three standards use MPEG-2 for video compression. ATSC uses Dolby Digital AC-3 for audio compression, ISDB uses Advanced Audio Coding (MPEG-2 Part 7) and DVB has no standard for audio compression but typically uses MPEG-1 Part 3 Layer 2.[75][76] The choice of modulation also varies between the schemes. In digital audio broadcasting, standards are much more unified with practically all countries choosing to adopt the Digital Audio Broadcasting standard (also known as the Eureka 147 standard). The exception is the United States which has chosen to adopt HD Radio. HD Radio, unlike Eureka 147, is based upon a transmission method known as in-band on-channel transmission that allows digital information to "piggyback" on normal AM or FM analog transmissions.[77]

However, despite the pending switch to digital, analog television remains being transmitted in most countries. An exception is the United States that ended analog television transmission (by all but the very low-power TV stations) on 12 June 2009[78] after twice delaying the switchover deadline,Kenya also ended analog television transmission in December 2014 after multiple delays. For analog television, there are three standards in use for broadcasting color TV (see a map on adoption here). These are known as PAL (German designed), NTSC (North American designed), and SECAM (French designed). (It is important to understand that these are the ways of sending color TV, and they do not have anything to do with the standards for black & white TV, which also vary from country to country.) For analog radio, the switch to digital radio is made more difficult by the fact that analog receivers are sold at a small fraction of the price of digital receivers.[79][80] The choice of modulation for analog radio is typically between amplitude (AM) or frequency modulation (FM). To achieve stereo playback, an amplitude modulated subcarrier is used for stereo FM.


The OSI reference model

The Internet is a worldwide network of computers and computer networks that communicate with each other using the Internet Protocol.[81] Any computer on the Internet has a unique IP address that can be used by other computers to route information to it. Hence, any computer on the Internet can send a message to any other computer using its IP address. These messages carry with them the originating computer's IP address allowing for two-way communication. The Internet is thus an exchange of messages between computers.[82]

It is estimated that the 51% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 2000 were flowing through the Internet (most of the rest (42%) through the landline telephone). By the year 2007 the Internet clearly dominated and captured 97% of all the information in telecommunication networks (most of the rest (2%) through mobile phones).[83] As of 2008, an estimated 21.9% of the world population has access to the Internet with the highest access rates (measured as a percentage of the population) in North America (73.6%), Oceania/Australia (59.5%) and Europe (48.1%).[84] In terms of broadband access, Iceland (26.7%), South Korea (25.4%) and the Netherlands (25.3%) led the world.[85]

The Internet works in part because of protocols that govern how the computers and routers communicate with each other. The nature of computer network communication lends itself to a layered approach where individual protocols in the protocol stack run more-or-less independently of other protocols. This allows lower-level protocols to be customized for the network situation while not changing the way higher-level protocols operate. A practical example of why this is important is because it allows an Internet browser to run the same code regardless of whether the computer it is running on is connected to the Internet through an Ethernet or Wi-Fi connection. Protocols are often talked about in terms of their place in the OSI reference model (pictured on the right), which emerged in 1983 as the first step in an unsuccessful attempt to build a universally adopted networking protocol suite.[86]

For the Internet, the physical medium and data link protocol can vary several times as packets traverse the globe. This is because the Internet places no constraints on what physical medium or data link protocol is used. This leads to the adoption of media and protocols that best suit the local network situation. In practice, most intercontinental communication will ACN use the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) protocol (or a modern equivalent) on top of optic fiber. This is because for most intercontinental communication the Internet shares the same infrastructure as the public switched telephone network.

At the network layer, things become standardized with the Internet Protocol (IP) being adopted for logical addressing. For the World Wide Web, these "IP addresses" are derived from the human readable form using the Domain Name System (e.g. is derived from At the moment, the most widely used version of the Internet Protocol is version four but a move to version six is imminent.[87]

At the transport layer, most communication adopts either the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP is used when it is essential every message sent is received by the other computer whereas UDP is used when it is merely desirable. With TCP, packets are retransmitted if they are lost and placed in order before they are presented to higher layers. With UDP, packets are not ordered or retransmitted if lost. Both TCP and UDP packets carry port numbers with them to specify what application or process the packet should be handled by.[88] Because certain application-level protocols use certain ports, network administrators can manipulate traffic to suit particular requirements. Examples are to restrict Internet access by blocking the traffic destined for a particular port or to affect the performance of certain applications by assigning priority.

Above the transport layer, there are certain protocols that are sometimes used and loosely fit in the session and presentation layers, most notably the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols. These protocols ensure that data transferred between two parties remains completely confidential.[89] Finally, at the application layer, are many of the protocols Internet users would be familiar with such as HTTP (web browsing), POP3 (e-mail), FTP (file transfer), IRC (Internet chat), BitTorrent (file sharing) and XMPP (instant messaging).

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) allows data packets to be used for synchronous voice communications. The data packets are marked as voice type packets and can be prioritized by the network administrators so that the real-time, synchronous conversation is less subject to contention with other types of data traffic which can be delayed (i.e. file transfer or email) or buffered in advance (i.e. audio and video) without detriment. That prioritization is fine when the network has sufficient capacity for all the VoIP calls taking place at the same time and the network is enabled for prioritization i.e. a private corporate style network, but the Internet is not generally managed in this way and so there can be a big difference in the quality of VoIP calls over a private network and over the public Internet.[90]

Local area networks and wide area networks

Despite the growth of the Internet, the characteristics of local area networks (LANs)--computer networks that do not extend beyond a few kilometers--remain distinct. This is because networks on this scale do not require all the features associated with larger networks and are often more cost-effective and efficient without them. When they are not connected with the Internet, they also have the advantages of privacy and security. However, purposefully lacking a direct connection to the Internet does not provide assured protection from hackers, military forces, or economic powers. These threats exist if there are any methods for connecting remotely to the LAN.

Wide area networks (WANs) are private computer networks that may extend for thousands of kilometers. Once again, some of their advantages include privacy and security. Prime users of private LANs and WANs include armed forces and intelligence agencies that must keep their information secure and secret.

In the mid-1980s, several sets of communication protocols emerged to fill the gaps between the data-link layer and the application layer of the OSI reference model. These included Appletalk, IPX, and NetBIOS with the dominant protocol set during the early 1990s being IPX due to its popularity with MS-DOS users. TCP/IP existed at this point, but it was typically only used by large government and research facilities.[91]

As the Internet grew in popularity and its traffic was required to be routed into private networks, the TCP/IP protocols replaced existing local area network technologies. Additional technologies, such as DHCP, allowed TCP/IP-based computers to self-configure in the network. Such functions also existed in the AppleTalk/ IPX/ NetBIOS protocol sets.[92]

Whereas Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) are typical data-link protocols for larger networks such as WANs; Ethernet and Token Ring are typical data-link protocols for LANs. These protocols differ from the former protocols in that they are simpler, e.g., they omit features such as quality of service guarantees, and offer collision prevention. Both of these differences allow for more economical systems.[93]

Despite the modest popularity of IBM Token Ring in the 1980s and 1990s, virtually all LANs now use either wired or wireless Ethernet facilities. At the physical layer, most wired Ethernet implementations use copper twisted-pair cables (including the common 10BASE-T networks). However, some early implementations used heavier coaxial cables and some recent implementations (especially high-speed ones) use optical fibers.[94] When optic fibers are used, the distinction must be made between multimode fibers and single-mode fibers. Multimode fibers can be thought of as thicker optical fibers that are cheaper to manufacture devices for, but that suffers from less usable bandwidth and worse attenuation - implying poorer long-distance performance.[95]

Transmission capacity

The effective capacity to exchange information worldwide through two-way telecommunication networks grew from 281 petabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, to 471 petabytes in 1993, to 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, and to 65 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007.[83] This is the informational equivalent of two newspaper pages per person per day in 1986, and six entire newspapers per person per day by 2007.[96] Given this growth, telecommunications play an increasingly important role in the world economy and the global telecommunications industry was about a $4.7 trillion sector in 2012.[40][97] The service revenue of the global telecommunications industry was estimated to be $1.5 trillion in 2010, corresponding to 2.4% of the world's gross domestic product (GDP).[40]

See also

Active networks

Busy override

Digital Revolution

Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling

Information Age

International Teletraffic Congress

List of telecommunications encryption terms


New media

Outline of telecommunication

Push-button telephone

Telecommunications Industry Association

Telecoms resilience

Wavelength-division multiplexing

Wired communication



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^ "How do you know your love is real? Check Facebook". CNN. 4 April 2008.

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^ "Online News: For many home broadband users, the internet is a primary news source" (PDF). Pew Internet Project. 22 March 2006.

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^ a b Garfield, Andrew. "The U.S. Counter-propaganda Failure in Iraq", FALL 2007, The Middle East Quarterly, Volume XIV: Number 4, Accessed 21 July 2009.

^ Wyatt, Edward (10 November 2014). "Obama Asks F.C.C. to Adopt Tough Net Neutrality Rules". New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2014.

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^ Brian Stelter (13 June 2009). "Changeover to Digital TV Off to a Smooth Start". New York Times.

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^ World Internet Users and Population Stats,, 19 March 2007.

^ OECD Broadband Statistics, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, December 2005.

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^ Introduction to IPv6, Microsoft Corporation, February 2006.

^ Stallings, pp 683-702.

^ T. Dierks and C. Allen, The TLS Protocol Version 1.0, RFC 2246, 1999.

^ Multimedia, Crucible (2011-05-07). "VoIP, Voice over Internet Protocol and Internet telephone calls".

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Goggin, Gerard, Global Mobile Media (New York: Routledge, 2011), p.176. ISBN 978-0415469180.

Haring, John (2008). "Telecommunications". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (2nd ed.). Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN978-0865976658. OCLC237794267.

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Wheen, Andrew. Dot-Dash to Dot.Com: How Modern Telecommunications Evolved from the Telegraph to the Internet (Springer, 2011).

External links

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LCCN: sh85133270

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Retrieved from ""

ACN Multi Level Marketing Business: An Inside Look

June 17, 2017
If you are thinking about beginning your personal ACN Multi Level Marketing business then take a few minutes to read this article as you are going to find it valuable.

Starting your own home business could possibly be just what you and your family need to finally take control of your time and finances. But if done incorrectly it could also be a full waste time, energy and cash.

So what exactly are those things that tends to make such a difference? What do you need to know to guarantee you may make a considerable income using the ACN multilevel marketing model. Let's take a closer look.

An Evaluation of the Company

The ACN business model is not totally distinct from other network marketing systems. The company delivers a wide range of well-liked consumable products that the majority of ordinary people use each day.

All you have to do earn commissions is promote these products to people you know and others you identify as wanting or are in need of them. To build a strong business you will want to go on and recruit a team of other people from whose sales you will also earn commissions.

As a company the ACN multi level marketing business is doing very nicely. ACN (American Communication Network) sells internet services, telecommunications services, wireless, and utilities. It is also rated in the list of the top 20 direct marketing companies in the United states by the Direct Promoting Association.

ACN was founded in 1992 by Robert Stevanovski, Greg Provenzano and two twin brothers Mike and Tony Cupisz. The network marketing side of the business was officially launched in 1993 with 20 founding front line distributors. It has because grown to serve 23 countries ranging from North America, Europe, Asia along with the Pacific.

This doesn't necessarily mean that this business opportunity is appropriate for you.

The Business Plan Revealed

Even if you only realize the basic fundamentals of business you understand that in order to get a business to make money, they should sell products. In order for an independent distributor to earn income and make a living you will have to do exactly the same - sell products.

Have you thought about how you will go about promoting ACN's particularly specialized menu of services? Keep in mind, in order to create an excellent living you are going to need to sell a lot of them!

Behind each and every network marketing opportunity is the promise of earning a long-term residual income by creating a sizable team of distributors. From this team you, will earn a little commission off of their time and work.

The concept is that each team member will do a bit of work which will altogether add up as a large volume of sales. This sounds excellent in theory, nevertheless, does this realistically happen?

Promoting your Opportunity

Most people who get involved in MLM do not make their initial investment back. The reason for this is not because the business, services or compensation plans are flawed.

The main reason is not obtaining the sales or marketing training to effectively promote and convert to sales. This lack of training can hold you back because simply put MLM (multi level marketing) is really a direct marketing business.

To combat this problem once you join MLM companies advise you to make a list of all the people you know - family, friends, co-workers,associates, colleagues, etc. You will then need to contact the people on your list to introduce the products, services and business opportunity.

This tends to make sense. But what occurs once you run out of the people on your list? Now what?

Learning the best way to market properly and effectively may be the crucial to creating a lucrative ACN multi level marketing business. When burn through your list of family friends and colleagues you need to have a plan in place to consistently obtain new people to introduce your business to.

Not planning to do this can cause failure in your business and shattering your dreams. Fail to plan and you plan to fail.

Author's Bio:

Merv Stevens works in Internet and Network Marketing. For tips and advice and to learn more about other home based business opportunities like the ACN multi level marketing business, go to his website: Wealth ACN Success Ventures. Act now and discover how average people are achieving extraordinary results online by cashing in on the DIGITAL gold rush!

Stock Sectors: Communications

June 16, 2017
Stock Sectors: Communications

Top Movers


% Change




HTHKYHutchison Telecommun...



FTRFrontier Communicati...



Bottom Movers


% Change

TGOTeraGo Inc



PTNRPartner Communicatio...



TIATelecom Italia SpA




3 month change-2.86%

S&P 500

3 month change +2.17%

Communications Companies



capP/EPriceChange% ChangeYTD

changeALSKAlaska Communications Systems Group ACN Inc$114.6M57.22.19+0.02+0.92%+33.54%TAT&T$239.3B19.138.92+0.08+0.21%-8.49%ATNIATN International Inc$1.1B89.270.46+0.86+1.24%-12.07%BCEBce Inc$40.6B13.745.09+0.39+0.87%+4.28%CBBCincinnati Bell Inc$800.5M5.519.00+0.35+1.88%-14.99%CNSLConsolidated ACN Communications Holdings Inc$1.1B306.121.33+0.29+1.38%-20.56%SHENShenandoah Telecommunications Co$1.6BNM31.90+0.55+1.75%+16.85%TUTelus Corp$20.4B--34.44+0.53+1.56%+8.13%VZVerizon$190.0B15.646.57-0.07-0.15%-12.76%


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College & University :: Why Go to College

June 16, 2017
Most students go to college these days because it "seems like the right thing to do after high school". Some students are not college material, some are not interested in college and ACN some cannot afford to go to college but most of them gave into peer and family pressure and enrolled in a college all the same.

Some of them graduated, some of them dropped out.

For the students who are certain that college is what they want to do, congratulations. However, for the souls who are filled with doubts and uncertainty, we have a question for you: Why are you going to college?

While you are trying to force an answer out of your brain, we'll like to share a few reasons of why you should not go to college:

1.) It Does Not Prepare You for The Real World

What was it that our parents tell us over and over again? "Study hard, get good grades, get into a college, graduate and you'll get a good job and get married and live happily ever after."


Life never promises any of us a rose garden. It doesn't tell us that if you get straight A's you will get a high paying job ACN with fancy title, unbeatable perks, benefits and bonus and live a happy and prosperous life. It is filled with misery, disappointment, mistakes and frustrations and all the A's you scored will not help you when you fall.

However, your ability to face your failure and rise from every fall will.

Now. Does college teach you how to handle failure?

2.) Job Opportunities

Theoretically, graduating from college should help you obtain suitable employment. Nonetheless, an annual study carried out by consulting firm Accenture states that only 67% of graduates have received jobs in their chosen fields.

Initially, the purpose of higher education was to create employees that make use of their intellect. It changed in 1970's when the college system successfully promulgated a whole generation into believing that college would provide high-level job opportunities. In the early stages, college graduates were actually getting high-level jobs. This encouraged more people to get a college degree and what happens when there is a high demand in the market?

A higher supply at compromised quality, of course. And so the tragedy unfolds.

3.) Job Readiness

Unless you are studying accounting, medicine, law, or computer science, your degree is not really worthy. According to Accenture, 80% of graduates assume that they will be trained on-the-job by the first employer. Unfortunately, more than 50% of graduates did not receive any training from their first employer.

The next question is : what should you do if you are not going to college?

1.) Educate Yourself

College is not the only place where you can obtain education. Internet is not just a platform for entertainment and social media but it also works as a school. Think of Youtube and You can learn web development, marketing, business, photography, film making, design, video editing and basically anything under the sun.

As the American author and humorist Mark Twain said, don't let schooling interfere with your education.

2.) Build a Business

Thanks to Internet, almost anyone can be an Internet-trepreneur. Those savings from part time jobs can be your start up cost, and with books and commitment, you can build a business online and start building your web traffic.

Sell cupcakes from Sabah? Be a costume maker in Jakarta? Provide party catering in Singapore?

Your choice.

3.) Build a Brand

Maybe you are passionate about fashion, anime, music, cooking, or anything else for that matter. If so, you might want to consider building your own brand as blogger or vlogger.

4.) Go to a Vocational School

Not everyone wants a white-collar job. There are roughly 3 million labor jobs available. 90% of them don't require a college degree, and many of them pay more than white-collar jobs.

All that is required is a skill, which, sadly, is something a college does not provide you with.

Or, alternatively, you might want to consider going to UnCollege, a gap year that equips you with useful skills and helps you build your personal portfolio.

China orders sweeping telecom merger

June 15, 2017
China's phone companies will merge into three large groups in a long-awaited government restructuring of its giant telecoms market that could lead to billions of dollars in new orders for foreign equipment suppliers.

A plan announced over the weekend calls for energizing competition by bringing together mobile and fixed-line operators. It says once mergers are complete, licenses for next-generation services will be issued -- a step that would require heavy spending on new equipment.

The announcement said mergers were expected to take place as quickly as possible but gave no time frame.

The plan is aimed at creating more robust competitors to China Mobile Ltd., which dominates China's market and is the world's biggest carrier by number of subscribers, with more than 400 million accounts.

It would result in three groups based around the parent companies of China Mobile and fixed-line carriers China Telecom and China Netcom.

The competitive environment will "dramatically change" over time, but China Mobile is unlikely to lose its dominance for at least one to two years, said Fitch analyst Jinqing Li.

Even after that time, "China Mobile's strong financial profile also provides further support in the face of evolving industry developments and uncertainties," Li said in a report.

Fixed-line carriers are struggling to attract new business at a time when first-time customers are passing up traditional service in favor of mobile ACN phones. China Mobile's smaller rival, China Unicom, also is having trouble attracting users.

The merger plan highlights the communist government's continued dominant role in the industry even after an earlier restructuring that broke up China's phone monopoly into smaller competitors.

The plan released by China's telecoms regulator, the Ministry of Information Industry, directly applies to the state-owned parent companies of Chinese carriers.

But it is expected to affect subsidiaries that have public shareholders abroad and create new commercial opportunities for equipment vendors such as Sweden's AB LM Ericsson, Franco-American company Alcatel-Lucent SA, China's Huawei Technologies Co. and Nokia Siemens Networks, a partnership between Finland's Nokia Corp. and Germany's Siemens AG.

The plan would have no direct effect on foreign carriers, which are barred from competing in China's telecoms market.

The mergers would set in motion the awarding of licenses for third-generation, or 3G, service that supports wireless video, Web surfing and other services, the government statement said.

Nokia and other suppliers are anticipating billions of dollars in orders for 3G equipment.

China has the world's biggest population of mobile phone users, with some 520 million accounts, and the government says that should reach 600 million soon.

The plan's rollout began Friday with the announcement that China Mobile's parent, China Mobile Communications Corp., will acquire China Railway Communication, also known as Tietong.

The plan also calls for China Telecommunications Corp., parent of China Telecom, China's main fixed-line carrier, to buy a mobile network from China United Telecommunications Inc., Unicom's parent company.

The rest of Unicom would be folded into fixed-line China Network Communications Group Corp., Netcom's parent. The remaining carrier, China Satellite Communications Corp. would be taken over by China Telecommunications.

In trading in Hong Kong, China Mobile shares fell 8.2% Monday on investor worries about greater competition. Its shares fell 3.8% Friday on speculation ahead of the weekend announcement. That means China Mobile's market capitalization has lost 304 billion Hong Kong dollars ($38.9 billion) since Thursday.

Trading of China Telecom, China Unicom and China Netcom shares in Hong Kong was suspended Friday pending the announcement of the restructuring and that stayed in effect Monday.

In Shanghai, trading also remained suspended in China United Telecommunications, which owns part of China Unicom and is the only phone company with shares traded on the mainland.


Irish Company Formation Proves Popular With Usa Corporations

June 15, 2017
Aviva's decision to consolidate its European interests under a single Irish holding company is by no means unique, and follows moves taken by several multinational corporations to consider the benefits of Irish company formation and relocate to Ireland in the wake of proposed tax reforms in the US.

Last May, US president Barack Obama declared his intention to clamp down on the channelling of US company profits through registered offices overseas and to dampen corporate enthusiasm for outsourcing jobs to foreign countries.

Since then there has been a noticeable increase in Irish company formation applications as a number of notable firms have moved their place of incorporation from countries identified by the US as tax havens, such as Bermuda, to Ireland.

Accenture, Wilis Group Holdings, TBS International, Ingersoll Rand

These include renowned consultancy firm Accenture, insurance brokerage giant Willis Group Holdings, international shipping outfit TBS International, manufacturing specialist Ingersoll Rand, electrical products manufacturer Cooper Industries, and medical device supplier Covidien.

Warner Chilcott plc, a pharmaceutical company employing 1,115 people worldwide, is currently seeking court orders to facilitate its Irish company formation project and is planning relocation to Ireland for tax reasons.

WPP, one of the world's largest advertising and marketing groups, moved to Dublin from London in September 2008, following their loud criticism of changes in the British corporate tax environment by the UK treasury.

Accenture and TBS have hailed Ireland's "sophisticated" and "well developed" legal and regulatory environment as key factors in their decision to relocate business here.


Accenture announced earlier this year that its Board of Directors had unanimously approved changing the company's place of incorporation to Ireland from Bermuda. Accenture's shareholders will be asked to vote in favor of the proposed Irish company formation move, at shareholder meetings expected to be held shortly.

William D. Green, Accenture's chairman & CEO, said, "After a careful review, our Board of Directors has determined that changing our place of incorporation to Ireland is in the best interests of Accenture and our shareholders. We believe that company incorporation Ireland will provide Accenture with economic benefits and help ensure our continued global competitiveness.

"A member of the European Union, Ireland offers a sophisticated, well-developed corporate, legal and regulatory environment. It also has a long history of international investment and long-established commercial relationships, trade agreements and tax treaties with European Union member states, the United States and other countries around the world where Accenture does business. In addition, company incorporation Ireland offers a stable political and economic environment and has the financial and legal infrastructure to meet Accenture's needs, both today and in the future."

Accenture has offices in 52 countries and serves clients in more than 120 countries around the world. Ireland is part of the company's largest geographic region, Europe/Middle East/Africa (EMEA), which accounts for nearly half of Accenture's total net revenues, is home to many of the company's largest clients and represents a significant business opportunity for the company. Accenture has a 40-year history as an employer and provider of services in Ireland. Today the company serves a wide range of clients in the country, including the Irish government, and has significant operations and a substantial presence there that has grown rapidly in recent years.

Company incorporation Ireland is an attractive proposition due to low corporation tax rates and a ACN current 3 year tax exempt period for new companies. For foreign investors considering setting up business in Ireland and existing organisations seeking a more tax efficient corporate base, the benefits of Irish company formation should be given serious consideration.

By: Heather Landau

Article Directory:

As Operations Director of a

European Company Formation specialist, Heather Landau has gained a wealth of experience in the Company Formation industry. Please visit website for further Irish Company Formation information.

WP Profit Builder 2.0 Review What is WP Profit Builder 2.0?

March 26, 2017
WP Profit Builder is a plugin tool that everyone need to think about. It is straightforward and enables you to produce high converting marketing web pages. A new and enhanced version, WP Profit Builder is readied to introduce this March, 2017.

WP Profit Builder is a 100% responsive and mobile-friendly plugin and themes. It works to WordPress. To puts it simply, you can conveniently include it to your existing WordPress website.

Profit Builder Bonus Information

Remedy: Ensure you guide your site visitors to a Leadpages which reveals them specifically just what they are trying to find - where it is simplest to transform them into a sale.

WP Profit Builder 2.0 has more than 60 easily offered templates. The updated version, WP Profit Builder 2.0 2, which will be released this March 27, 2017 has over a hundred pre-made templates. It features added features, which will undoubtedly make your web page structure experience easy as well as quick. Amongst the phenomenal functions include a quick channel contractor, vibrant split screening system, conversion radar, clever rate boosting, as well as improved Ecommerce support.

Understanding this principle will certainly force you to allow the Internet do many of the heavy training on your prospecting efforts. This just indicates that you are making use of ProfitBuilder and follow-up systems to do the initial prospecting for you.

Building expert looking web pages can be quite challenging, particularly if you don't have any type of technical abilities. Good idea there are tools that could help you construct great looking websites easily as well as swiftly. WP Profit Builder is a need to have tool for every single online marketing professional. It helps develop magnificent websites in just a few minutes utilizing a basic drag and also drop user interface.

Is WP Profit Builder 2.0 Reliable? landing page builder

March 17, 2017
The significant advantage of this software is that it is cost-free and also it executes the very same feature as the paid software like Frontpage and also Dreamweaver. You will certainly be able to make use of the software application on both the Windows and Mac computer system.

Prevent duplicate that looks amateur with unusual font styles of or words that are too large. Have something that's calming to the eyes of your prospects because people are going to be seeing your landing page on the computer system, which suggests it, needs to make them really feel comfortable in every means. When you have your copy prepared, ensure you get it examined by a specialist to ensure there aren't any unnecessary additions or any kind of hidden errors or mistakes.

Currently let's obtain back to the 10 Min Forex Wealth WP Profit Builder. As I have previously stated one of the systems in 10 Minute Forex Wide range Building contractor is based on an outbreak method. This approach is completely based upon support as well landing page creator as resistance. These tutorials will educate you to recognize support and resistance degrees on charts. As soon as support (or resistance) is broken you will put sell (or buy) order as well as get in the market.

The 5-Second Trick For ProfitBuilder

The main reason why I wp profit builder use this ProfitBuilder review plugin for coming shortly web pages is because it stops individuals from accessing other parts of your web site.

Thankfully just like just about anything WordPress linked, there is a Alternative for that and it comes in the shape of various plugins.

Leadpages comes with split tests on Professional or State-of-the-art plans. And because anything is contained in a single platform, it can make putting together split tests uncomplicated.

thanks very much for sharing this product or service with us And that i am curious about realizing a lot more on their own membership siteā€¦

Clash Royale Hack Legendary Chest

February 16, 2017

clash royale hack 1.5.0

Tavern Trix ($1.99) - The goal is to rearrange coins from one shape into another in a set number of relocations. Do you have a difficult time finding someplace to set up your Barbecue grill?

For those of you who may have trouble remembering things you are going to find that one way you are able clash royale hack how to get legendary improve your memory is by playing different sorts of games developed to help with this. I hate to disappoint individuals who are thinking that playing World Of Warcraft 24 hours a day will help, but this isn't the sort of game we're talking about. On this page we are going to be speaking about a few of the different games you are able to wind up playing that will help your memory, and also where you can find these games online.

One of the first gamis we are going to discuss which can help you improve your memory is really a game that is called Pattern II. As soon as you first begin playing this game you're going to see a Tic-Tac-Toe style game board, and they are going to be putting colored blocks in the squares. They are only going to show you the actual pattern for about one second, after which they clear the board and you need to recreate the pattern using the colored blocks. When you initially are playing this game you may find that it's not that challenging, but you ought to be aware that this gets incredibly difficult as you progress, simply because they add more blocks as well as more colors as you go along.

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Path Memory is yet another game that can end up having many useful effects for your memory. The way this game starts is the fact that they put three houses on a screen and they develop a path going from one house to the other, and you recreate the path. Although the first level will only have three houses with a path, the second level will have four houses with a path, and some of you might be thinking that it's quite simple. Just like the previous game, this will get very difficult very fast, simply because after each path you finish they add on a new house.

One other game I would like to talk about is called five UFOs, and you'll find that this is very similar to the old Simon game that folks used to own. In this game there are going to be five different colored UFOs, and they're going to light up, and you only need to repeat the pattern in the same order. This game is different than the standard Simon game that you remember, simply because they do not just add a color after a level is completed, they in addition change the complete pattern for the next level. Due to the difference between these two games you ought to understand that Five UFOs is a game that is going to be far more difficult than the old fashioned Simon game.

These types of games can be extremely useful for anybody at any age in order to improve or perhaps maintain their memories if they are actually older. For people wondering where you can actually play these gains you're going to see that they are available for free at You are additionally going to see that they have loads of other memory games available that you can play for free, and the selection of games should help you from becoming bored.

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